When a spine specialist recommends a spinal fusion surgery for a felt and chronic back pain, it is, basically, to stop the constant and painful movements of two bone vertebrae clashing against each other, affecting nearby nerves, ligaments, and even muscles, thus causing so much discomfort, such that with spinal fusion surgery, the two bone vertebrae will be fused by joining two or more vertebrae into one single structure, so that they will be prevented from moving like they used to. To determine the cause of back pains, the patient concerned needs to go through a series of tests to fully check accurately which suspected spinal problem is causing the chronic discomfort, since there are specific causes, as studied in medicine, which can be remedied by spinal fusion and these causes are: when the space between the spinal disks have narrowed causing the painful rubbing of the bones and which is a result of degenerative spinal disease; an inborn scoliosis abnormality that arises with the spinal curves growing to one side instead of straight upward; when the spinal canal narrows or known as spinal stenosis; a tumor growth on the spine; or an abnormal shifting of a spinal disk which is called spondylolisthesis.
Comprehensive Spine Institute surgery is a delicate form of surgery and must be performed by an experienced and trained spinal specialist and, in this connection, there are two ways for a spinal surgeon to perform the surgery: one, by way of operating through the belly, anterior lumbar inter-body fusion, and the other.
By way of posterior fusion, which is operating directly from the back, thus when the surgeon has thoroughly discussed the manner of Comprehensive Spine Institute surgery to the patient, after incision, he sets aside to the side part the muscles and other organs to go further down and see and inspect the spine and starts removing the joints found between the damaged spinal disks and replaces these with any of the following methods: using screws, rods, or bone graft which is taken from either the hip or pelvis and, at the same time, inserts a bone morphogenetic protein to stimulate bone growth of the newly-replaced joints.
Generally, every operation has its own risks, and so with spinal fusion surgery, where the risks can vary from bleeding, blood clots, infection, pain, risk from anesthesia to more serious problems, such as nerve injury which can result to numbness; tissue rejection and infection from a bone donor; or, worst, the surgery does not work and the back pain has returned. You may further read about spine surgery at https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/when-surgeons-operate-on-two-patients-at-once_us_59663f02e4b03f144e2fc463.